1) Spasm of a Coronary artery:
When blood flows through the arteries, it can get restricted due to clamps developing in an artery. The artery clamps down or tightens so that no blood can flow through due to a sudden contraction or clamping. The spasm develops due to many reasons. Like consuming drugs and medication Cocaine or amphetamines, tobacco smoking of cigarettes or bidi (Indian mini cigar) or stress due to emotions or anger. The spasm may cause temporary or permanent damage to the heart depending on the severity.
2) Coronary Artery split or dissection
The artery breaks open or dissects in a linear direction. The blood supply increases substantially thus damaging the heart muscle. It is common in women during periods or pregnancy. Coronary dissection can occur to females of young age as well between 20 and 30 years of age.
Whenever an accident takes place, and the impact is much on chest or pelvis or abdomen area, the artery may get damaged due to the impact. It gets separated or forced to tear thereby forming a clot that will reduce the flow of blood to the heart. Usually, chest impact or athlete getting injured in the area of an artery causes the heart suffer much.
4) Anomalous Coronaries:
Anomalous coronary arteries are insufficient to carry the blood when demanded, and they put pressure on the blood vessels but are unable to meet the demand. Therefore, causing a heart attack. It happens with those born with congenitally abnormal arteries. The demand of oxygen and blood increases during exercise or physical efforts thus resulting in heart attack. Less than 1 % of the population is affected by such attacks, and it is usually happening to children.
It is a common disease causing of heart attack. It is an auto-immune disease for the children under five years of age. Here the lymph nodes inflammation and the inflammation of blood vessels is the cause. The clots get formed in the damaged walls of the coronary arteries. All this results in out-pouching or aneurysm. The blood supply gets restricted.
The good news is that an early detection of the aneurysm is treatable with drugs.